Many male writers who drink alcohol are already known, but what about their literary sisters? Olivia looks back on these great women writers who escaped in wine and redeemed on paper.
Margaret. Duras, France, 1955
if you write a book about wine and male writers like me, you will ask the question "what happens to female writers" more frequently? are there any alcoholic female writers? Are their stories the same or different? The first question will be simple. Yes, of course, and some of them are brilliant and restless, such as Jane. Reese, Jane. Stamford, Margaret. Duras, Jane. Bowles, Annie. Sexton, Carson. class, Dorothy. Parker and Xiuli. Jackson. Alcoholism is more prevalent among men than among women (in 2013, the NHS calculated that 9 percent of men and 5 percent of women were alcohol dependent). However, there is no shortage of teenage drinkers, and there is no shortage of soft afternoons and sweaty pleasures that last into the day. Female writers cannot resist the temptation of wine bottles, let alone avoid troubles like fights and arrests, shameful transgressions, and the gradual poisoning of intimate relationships with friends and others, which annoys their male counterparts. Jane. Reese was briefly held in Holloway for assault. Elizabeth. Bishop drank all the cologne more than once after drinking the last drop of wine in the cupboard. But are there any different reasons for drinking? How does society react to drinking and writers? Especially in the slippery, slightly tipsy 20th century, if you can call it the golden age.
in the 1987 book material Life, Margaret, French novelist, and filmmaker. Duras said many shocking things about being a woman and writer. One of her enlightening remarks is about the difference between women's and men's drinking, or not the difference but how the two are perceived. "when a woman drinks," she wrote, "it's like a wild animal or a baby drinking water. Alcoholism is a scandal for women, and female alcoholics are a rare and serious problem. It tarnishes our sacred nature. " Sadly, she added her concluding remarks: "I realize I'm creating a scandal around me."
she has a good nature of wine, and she finds that it begins with her first sip. Sometimes she tries to quit for a few years at a time, but as long as she drinks, she goes all out. When I woke up, I started drinking. I had two glasses and then stopped to vomit for a while, and then passed out after killing eight liters of Bordeaux. "I drink because I'm an alcoholic," she told the New York Times in 1991. "I'm an alcoholic, just like I'm a writer. I'm a real writer. I'm a real alcoholic. I can't sleep until I drink red wine. After that, I drink brandy at night. A glass of red wine every hour. Drink brandy after coffee in the morning, and then start writing. When I look back on this, I wonder how I managed to write. "
Dorothy. Parker was at work in 1937 with her husband, playwright Alan. Campbell
. It was also surprising that she continued to write so hard that most of her works were so exquisite and detached from these sometimes tragic writing conditions. Duras has written dozens of novels, including the sea wall, the sound of the piano, and the ecstasy of Lauer Weinstein. Her work is elegant, experimental, passionate as if cursed and lifelike-almost stimulating sensory hallucinations and its phonological power. As the front-runner of Rome in the new era, she omitted the plot and characters from tradition, the clunky equipment of realistic novels, and retained the almost classical seriousness-a pure style caused by a great deal of revision.
Duras's childhood is characterized by fear, violence, and humiliation: the beginning of a chain of events that are common in the early days of alcoholics. She was born in Saigon in 1914 under the pseudonym Marguerite Donnadieu (Duras and her parents were both French teachers. Her father died when she was seven, leaving a destitute family. Her mother scrimped and bought a small farm, but she was cheated over the price by buying a piece of land that would be flooded by the sea regularly. Marguerite's mother and brother beat her. She remembers catching birds in the woods and swimming in a river full of carcasses from upstream. She had sex at school and seemed to be encouraged by her family for money reasons, with a much older Chinese man. Then she got married, had a son with another man, made movies, lived, and wrote wholeheartedly. Her alcoholism worsened over time and became more and more difficult until she was diagnosed with liver cirrhosis at the age of 68 and forced to abstain from a drinking-a terrible experience in an American hospital in Paris.
not many writers try to stay awake, and when they do so, they have to put up with the falling output. Vows are not as magical as alcohol. They are both a catalyst for creativity and a destroyer of brain function, erasing memories and causing serious damage to the accumulation and expression of former alcoholics. But Duras wrote one of her most famous and best novels two years after she stopped drinking. The lover is talking about the unmarried love between a 15-year-old French girl and a much older Chinese man in Indochina. Most of the book is cited from the fury and depravity that Duras has shown.
later published versions show that she managed to return to the original scene of her childhood, again and again, constantly redescribing it with ever-changing colors, sometimes romantic, sometimes rough, and grotesque. Repeat the same story, repeating what she knows is destroying her: some repetitive actions can be spawned, others deeply destructive, leading the critic Edmund White to wonder whether Duras is restrained by what Freud called compulsive repetition. "I know it, desire is killed, I know it exists," she once told others, and it was so strong that the illusion of absolute and uncompromising tore her work apart. At the same time, the conversation seems to show how she uses alcohol as a unique form of self-abuse, self-conceiving, and self-anesthesia to escape from herself. The ubiquitous cruelty is seen in the works. Duras's nightmarish childhood raises the question of the beginning. What causes alcohol addiction? what's the difference between women and men? Alcoholism has about half the heritability, and a genetic preference, or environmental factors such as early life experiences and social stress, also play an important role. From Hemingway to Scott. Fitzgerald, from Tennessee. Williams to John. Cheever, when searching the autobiographies of alcoholic female writers, you can find similar family tragedies in the lives of their male counterparts.
Elizabeth Bishop is an excellent example. Many members of her family drank heavily, including her father, who died when she was a baby. Bishop's life is too often disrupted by loss and material insecurity, which is common in the family history of alcoholics. When she was five years old, her mother was taken in and they never saw each other again. Instead, Bishop was thrown around between aunts, an anxious child, a free Smith Girls' College student, thankfully discovered the use of alcohol as a social lubricant in Massachusetts, but didn't realize that alcohol itself had the power to bring loneliness and loss until it was too late.
in the poem A drunken Man, Bishop quotes some events from his own life to create an iconic image of an alcoholic who keenly explains their extraordinary longing. " I started drinking a long time ago, but I never had enough. The narrator admits that this verse is in John. Bergman's straightforward poem Mengqu echoes:\ & quot; hunger and thirst is his charter, red wine, cigarettes and alcohol, and more.
shame is Bishop's main driving force for drinking, first the guilt she has brought since childhood, then the shame after her binge, and then sexual orientation. In a lesbian era when homosexuality is not allowed and accepted, Bishop discovered her greatest freedom in Brazil, architect Lota de Macedo Soares. She spent prolific and quiet years there, despite the interlaced drunkenness, followed by inevitable fights and misunderstandings, as well as an astonishing deterioration in health.
shame is also an important factor in Patricia Heysmith's life. She was born Mary in 1921. Patricia. Pulman, whose surname is a souvenir of an unpopular man, divorced nine days before she was born. She doesn't welcome herself either. Her mother drank turpentine when she was four months pregnant and wanted to have a miscarriage. quote; is funny. You like the smell of turpentine, "she said later. The cruel joke caused Cheever to recall that his parents teased him when they tried to get rid of him. Like Cheever, Heysmith has mixed feelings for her mother. Like Cheever, she is cheated, empty and unreal, but unlike Cheever, she dares to face the direction of her sexual desires. Although her life does experience sometimes happiness, sometimes because of deviating from social orientation. (note: Heysmith should be bisexual)
she is an anxious, guilty, tearful child-miserable, in her own words. At the age of eight, she couldn't help fantasizing about killing her stepfather, Stanley, and at the age of 12, a fight between her stepfather and mother disrupted her life. That fall, Patricia's mother took her to Texas and said she was going to divorce and live in the south with Pat and grandmother, but after a few weeks of a utopian life full of women, Mrs. Haysmith returned to New York. Without even an explanation, she left her daughter. Spent a miserable year in isolation. Patricia never recovered from the feeling of betrayal, the feeling of being abandoned.
Patricia. Hayes started drinking when she was at home in Switzerland in 1987
when she was a student at Barnard College for Women in New York. At the beginning of a diary in the 1940s, she wrote down her belief that drinking was important to an artist because it enabled her to "see the truth, simplicity and primitive emotions again and again". For ten years, she described the days when she went to bed with a bottle of gin and Rest at 4 p.m., followed by seven martinis and two glasses of red wine. By the 1960s, her life was continued by binge drinking, and in the morning her eyes were opened by an eye-opener, telling lies about her drinking and life-such as how good a cook and gardener she was, even though her garden was already full of dried grass, and she usually ate cereal and fried eggs.
most of her feelings and expressions enter into her works and become her famous figures. Tom. Ripley is not addicted to alcohol, but he is like a complete alcoholic: his paranoia, guilt, and self-loathing, he needs to forget or escape the pain and emptiness of himself. He is always leaving or slipping towards someone, more enjoyable, higher status, even though this in itself is shameful and can lead to his random and terrible murder. Ripley has been a killer imitating an alcoholic all his life, constantly driven by the need for repetitive sexual behavior to snuff out the trouble caused by it. There is also an atmosphere in this book, the looming anxiety, and doom that is so familiar in all alcoholic works. Look at this passage from Ripley. When Tom was in Rome, he tried to convince himself that he would not be arrested for killing Dicky.
if attacked, Tom can't even know who will attack him. I'm sure he can't imagine the police. He was afraid of the nameless, invisible things that haunted him like a nemesis. Only when a few cocktails extinguished his fears did he dare to go to the Serbian Orthodox Church, swagger past, and whistle.
remove the name, he can go directly from Charles. Jackson's lost weekend surfaced or appeared in Tennessee. Any page in Williams' drinking diary.
Jane. Bowles 1967
there is no doubt that personal life unhappiness is one of the reasons why men or women develop drinking habits. But there are still some gaps in these private stories that are difficult for any individual to face or express. In Jane. In Burns' collection of stories, simple Happiness, Elizabeth. Yang's preface summed up the life of Western women for most of the 20th century as energetic and angry. "until the 1970s, women were worthless and despised." "they, all of them, are regarded as the same kind of children in terms of ability," she wrote. "unlike children, comedians retain the burden of shaking every joke on the show. They are regarded as trite, talkative, vain, Oblivious, and useless. The old woman is an ugly old woman, Tomahawk, stepmother, old maid. Women appear in the male world only when they are seen as sexual objects. After that, they completely disappeared and were buried alive with creepy labels of contempt, dislike, and emotional affectation. "
by way of elaboration, she was told by a Truman. Capote, William. Burroughs and Gregory. Vidal believes that the story of a woman writer who can side with the best writers of the time: a modernist giant, though not much. After experiencing a stroke caused by alcoholism in middle age, Jane. Burls was sent to see an English neuroscientist, who condescended and pretended, "you are not working, my dear Mrs. Burls, go back to your pots and pans and try to get to work."
this kind of strong disregard for women, unable to understand their talents and inner life, is very typical. Similar scenes can be seen in the lives of other women writers in the 20th century. To Joan. Stafford, for example, was more like Robert at that time. Lowell's wife is known, not for her Pulitzer Prize-winning collection of stories or her extraordinary and ferocious novel, the Pumas. The latter was published in 1947 when she was drying up in a mental hospital on the upper New York side of Payne Whitney, There, her psychiatrist insisted that she improve her dress, change her usual bag cardigan and slacks, change into a shirt and skirt, and wear a pearl necklace to the dinner party, but were not interested in her retrospect, as Stafford said with a wry smile, "a Smith College girl."
I don't think any other writer can be as simple as a novelist. Reese is better able to express this pressure and hypocrisy, she can hardly be described as a feminist, and so harshly and gloomily describes many women, which is still disturbing to this day. Reese was born Gwen on the island of Dominica in 1890. Williams, to her English father and Creole mother, like Fitzgerald, was a substitute, conceived nine months after her sister's death. Like Fitzgerald, she feels completely on the sidelines, unreal, or naturally likable. She came to London when she was sixteen, a beautiful, hopelessly ignorant girl. Her expectation of a charming new life was washed away by dark, cold, unyielding, casual, and rough people. When her father died in drama school, she chose to slip away rather than go home, become a choir girl and change her name to Ella. gray.
Ella. Gray, Ella. Legolit, Jane. Reese, Mrs. Hammer, no matter what name she used in her trip, Reese was always on the brink of drowning, frantically eager to find a man who could protect her and give her the stable and rich life she longed for. Unaccustomed to love, she chose poorly, perhaps just bad luck, and the man she chose either abandoned her or could not provide her with the material and emotional security she needed. She had a miscarriage, was married, had a dead baby and a daughter. Mariana (most of her childhood was taken care of in another country far from her mother), married again and again, was on the verge of embarrassment and teetering through all these misfortunes.
Alcohol soon became a way to deal with trouble and chaos, covering up dark stains and temporarily filling desirous black holes. As her autobiographer said, her past tortured her so that she had to write, and then writing tortured her, she had to drink to write, drink to continue her life.
but what emerges from this fainting confusion is a series of miraculously clear novels: weird, wandering modernist miracles, about lonely, rootless women in the semi-upper class of London and Paris. These books, quartets, after leaving Mr. Markens, night travel, and good morning. Midnight shows the world from the vantage point of the poor. They're about repression and loneliness, yes, but they're also about money: money, class, and snobbery, which means you can't afford food and your shoes are worn out again, so you can't maintain a little elegant fantasy. Can't maintain a reluctant way of life and be accepted by society. Reese's description of the world is cruel, in which women grow old alone, can't find a safety net, and run out of money to make ends meet.
in the wonderful and unstable work good Morning, Midnight, she shows exactly why a woman drinks with limited choices in work and love. At the same time, unlike Fitzgerald, who was close to her time, she used drinking as a modernist skill. The novel is written in a wonderful and changeable first person, gliding in Sasha's wandering mood. "I've had enough of these cold yellow streets and hostile people, and I cry myself to sleep every night. I'm tired of thinking. I'm tired of memories. Now whisky, rum, gin, vermouth, and wine are all written on the bottle "drink while alive". As soon as I wake up, I start all over again, and sometimes I have to stop by force, and you think I have trembling delirium or something.
Reese disappeared from public view during World War II and reappeared in 1956 when BBC was widely searching for information about writers thought to be dead. In the 1960 s, she lived like a shipwreck in a place called a dry boat bungalow in Devon, with her third husband, the grumpy Max. Hammer, who lives together, was jailed for fraud and was paralyzed after a stroke. InDuring these dark years, Les suffered from extreme poverty and repression, as well as her neighbors who had to call her a witch. She was taken to a mental hospital after attacking one of them with scissors. Drinking continues unabated, worse than before. At the same time, she has been writing a new novel, dreaming of returning to Zhaohai, and is considered to be Jane. The antecedent of love, describing her childhood in the Caribbean, her feelings of being an outsider, are left in cold and indescribable England.
No one, Diana. Asr wrote in the book STET, "I have read Jane." Reese would have thought she was good at running life after his first four novels, but only when he saw her would he know how badly she could do it. Then Asr became Reese's editor and treated her as kindly as Sonia. Orwell and Francis Windham, the guardians and guardians of her revival, came too late and experienced so many tribulations that Reese's scarred inner world became different.
Jane. In Reese
in her work on Reese, Asr is puzzled by what is the key question for these alcoholic women writers, who are so bad at making a living, so unable to face the problems caused by life and commitment, but so good at describing it all, looking directly into things that are completely blind to others: her creed-so simple and easy to tell, hard to follow-is that she has to tell the truth. According to her original description, this cruel effort enabled her to understand the nature of her injury in her unique way.
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this cruelty can be seen everywhere in Reese's works, turning self-pity into ruthless judgment. She shows how power works and how cruel people are to the lowly, and how poverty and social customs bind women and limit their choices until Holloway's cell looks no different from a Paris hotel room. This is by no means a success of feminism, an independent and equal proposition, but a cruel, haunting exposition, piles of cards and lead dice, and even the soberest women will be forced to keep drinking.