You are my eye: poets and their goddesses

You are my eye: poets and their goddesses

I want to see the world through you.

I want to see the world through you,

, because in that case, all that

can see is--

you, you

-- Leonard Maria Rilke (1875-1926)


earlier, writers lived with quills, typewriters and These also fascinate people like Goethe, Rilke, Franz Villefort, and Capote. As early as in ancient times, poets routinely wrote their muse into every play and epic. Here, let's review this long-forgotten image.

the image of "the Glass Girl" by Elaine Noraduss (Eleonora Duse) has influenced a whole generation.

she has long blond hair and is young. He and she are the old horse and the new saddle. Because of his age, he is famous, influential, and affluent. Max Frisch (Max Frisch, 1911-1991) and his girlfriend Alice Alice Locke-Carey: an old horse with a new saddle. So, is this his goddess? It's a fake at best. In Frisch's 1975 autobiographical novel Montauk (Montauk), he called his partner Lin (Lynn),. In his third diary (2010), published after his death, things became generally clear: "our love has no future," he wrote. " This sentence was written on the first page where he mentioned Lin. She was naive by nature, and at that time, she was immersed in crossword puzzles and psychology. Because of this, Frisch and this American girl have little in common. But this 70-year-old may no longer be able to break up as decisively as he did with Inberg Bachmann (Ingeborg Bachmann). Emotionally, when he was in his infancy, he could only settle down as soon as he came.

however, the love affairs of the literati are often not regarded as "adventures of the same goddess", but more often declared as "extramarital affairs", "having an affair" or even "old boys and girls": even people in modern and contemporary German literature, whether Gunter Glass or Martin Walser, are not spared. Martin had a summer love affair with his friend Rudolph Augstein's wife. Jacob Augstein recently admitted that he was the fruit of the relationship. Martin Walser also played a little art for another ex-lover: in 2003, TV personality Martina Z ö ller wrote the realistic novel "Braddo" (the name of the Bleibtreu, the name of the hotel, which can also be interpreted as "stay faithful"), while Martin published a significantly better "glance of love" (Der Augenblick der Liebe) in 2008. The goddess (in this case, pure spiritual needs) is out of date because today's artists want a partner who can inspire them and live together at the same time. Now that the goddess is dead, it has been replaced by Groupie, the product of a consumer society in which sex is bought and sold and crazily pursued.

at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, because Freud pointed out the existence of the subconscious, "sex" was regarded as the driving force for progress, so the image of the goddess changed greatly. The friends of Salome, Elaine Noraduss, and Alma made poets crazy. However, even these "last girls", who are so sought after, still have a profound accumulation of historical and cultural traditions.

from left: Salome, Paul Ray, Nietzsche

in ancient times, people called on nine goddess muses as guardian gods of art and asked them for help. In the Muse Temple (that is, the museum), we still worship them. Virgil also used "invocation" as a decoration in poetry, while in Horace, he made fun of this vital traditional technique and joked about the call to the muse in poetry. As Ernst Robert Curtius (Ernst Robert Curtius) wrote in his masterpiece on muses, medieval Christian poets abandoned the image of the mouse, which was denounced as pagan worship, and turned to the Holy Spirit of Christianity.

this state continued until Dante (Dante) regained the position of the muses. He called them "our patron saint", and they nurtured poets with sweet milk. Whenever his creation of the "Divine Drama" reached an important turning point, he would ask the goddesses to give him a flash of light. Both Beatrice of Dante (Beatrice,) and Laura (Laura) of Petrarch (Petrarcas) are intertwined with love and religion. Since then, women have been regarded as gods only muses, although they are also flesh and blood, this does not affect their sacred status. The Iraqi is a beautiful thing.

the Last Girl

similarly, Goethe's creative inspiration comes from the women he can't get. Without Charlotte Buff (Charlotte Buff), there would be no "the troubles of Young Witt", and we can read "West- ö stlich" today. Er Divan) should thank the banker's wife, Marianne von Willermer, (Marianna von Willermer).

"It was not the situation that encouraged people to reach out.

she was the biggest thief.

because the only trace of love left in my heart

was stolen by her."

Goethe is full of resentment against her. In 1823, when the elderly Goethe (75) proposed to 19-year-old Ulrike von Livezov (Ulrike von Levetzow) was rejected, "Marian Bart's sad (Marienbader Elegien)" was born.

Bettina von Arnim

Women of that time had little choice but to get married. However, some of them, by chance, can abandon the role of the muse and become the leading force. This is exactly what happened during the romantic period in Germany. Bettina von Arnim (Bettina von Arnim) is a typical example, as are Caroline Schelling (Caroline Schelling), Carolina (Karoline von G ü underride and von Enter (Rahel Varnhagen von Ense);, who run salons and literary Kyodo and write with their pen. Of course, this does not mean a change in the old pattern: their colleagues began to regard Lori, the teenager of the year of cardamom, as their favorite. Sophie von Kuhn, wife of Novalis (Novalis), (Sophie von K ü hn, is among them. In 1794, Novalis took this lovely little guy down in five minutes. The under-thirteen-year-old girl agreed to the engagement, calling his letter "pleasant", but at the same time, she used the word "you" carefully in response to the ebullient letter. Two years later, Sophie died of liver disease. In addition to suffering, Novalis wrote: "Ode to the Night" (Hymnen a die Nacht, and translated "Ode to the Night" in 1800, calling her the messenger of inner experience and evoking human rebirth.


stands before the magnificent nature-


Novalis stands in front of the magnificent nature-


Noval Capote (Truman Garcia Capote, 1924-1984), American writer and author of Breakfast at Tiffany's (1958) and Cold Blood (1965).

[2] the nine literary goddesses in ancient Greek mythology, music "Musik (music)" and museum "Museum" all come from the word "muse".

[Note 2] (Muse), in ancient Greek mythology.

(Eleonora Duse, 1858-1924), Italian drama actress.

Glass Girl (femme fragile) is a concept relative to "Snake and Scorpion Beauty (femme fatale)".

[Note 5] (from left, the image of Lilith played by: Mata Hari, Ling Bo Zero of the Apostle Lilith in the eggs of the Earth's Life in the New Century Evangelical Warriors, Ling Bo Zero of the sealed Lilith, Lilith painted by John Collier). Some modern viewpoints (R.Buckland) believe that Lilith symbolizes the dark side of the moon, similar to the "time mother Kali" of Hindu mythology. Lilith (Lilith) in Sumerian mythology is a classic "snake and scorpion beauty" image. It is recorded as Adam's first wife, made of clay by God, and later left the Garden of Eden angrily by the missionaries who were dissatisfied with the position of Adam's men and women.

[transliteration 6] Marx Frisch was born and died in Zurich. He is a Swiss architect, playwright, novelist, and representative of German literature after World War II. His works focus on personal identity, morality, responsibility, and political views and are full of irony.

Frisch's previous novels are mostly autobiographical, while Montauk is fictional, even though the protagonist has the same name as the author; Montauk is an island in eastern New York.

Inberg Bachmann (Ingborg Bachmann, 1926-1973) is an Austrian writer and an important German essayist in the 20th century. He cohabited with Frisch in 1960 and broke up in 1962. The pain of the breakup caused Inberg to be hospitalized several times. Frisch was 53 and Inberg was 37 when they broke up.

[9] G ü nter Grass, 1927-is a famous German writer who wrote Tin Drum, years of Dogs, Cats, and mice, etc. He is also a printmaker, graphic artist, and painter. He had an affair with the architect and painter Veronika Schr ö her for several years in 1970 (44) and had a daughter, broke up with his first wife, Anna Schwarz, in 1972 (46), married the organist Ute Grunert in 1979 (53), and spent some time together in India from 1986 to 1987 (61).

[translation note 10[Martin Walser (Martin Walzer, 1927 -) he had an affair with Maria Carlsson, the wife of Der Spiegel founder Rudolph Augstein (Rudolf Karl Augstein), who gave birth to Martin's son Jacob Augstein (Jakob Karl Augstein), in 1967. Jacob is a well-known journalist and publisher.

November 2009 was the seventh year after Rudolph Augstein's death.

[12] Groupie is made up of group (team, group) and ie (pet name), which originally means "girl with the band", but later evolved into "fans (especially women)" and "otaku goddess".

[13] Freud (Sigmund Freud,1856-1939) Austrian psychiatrist, deep psychologist (Tiefpsychologie), religious critic, author of "interpretation of Dreams", "three theories of sexology", etc., known as "the father of psychoanalysis".

[14] that is, "iceberg theory": human consciousness is like an iceberg, only a small part of it is above the water, and most of what is hidden below the surface is the subconscious.

[15] Salome (Lou Andreas-Salom é, 1861-1937), from a family of Russian generals, met the empirical philosopher and artist Paul R é e in Rome at the age of 21 and met Nietzsche under his introduction. The relationship between the three ended after the jealousy of two men. He became acquainted with German Persian and Orientalist Friedrich Carl Andreas, in 1886 (27) and agreed to his proposal in the same year under the pressure of the latter, but the condition of marriage was that he was not allowed to have sex after marriage. Rilke had written several anonymous letters with poetic notes to Salome before he met Rilke, who was 15 years younger than he was in 1897 (37). In 1898, the two traveled to Italy together, and between 1899 and 1900, Rilke accompanied Salome and his wife on two trips to Russia. Rilke was tortured by her love for her married husband Salome. Although Salome had feelings for him, the affair ended with a parting letter from Salome in 1901, but the two remained friends until Rilke died in 1926. Of the relationship, Freud commented: "Salome is the great and sometimes helpless poet, Leonard Maria Rilke's goddess muse, but also his kind mother." In addition, 1901 was also the year when Salome (50) became Freud's assistant.

(Eleonora Duse, 1858-1924), an Italian theatrical actress is described as a "glass woman".

Alma (Alma Maria Mahler-Werfel,1879-1964), described as "(Femme Fatale) of the Snake and Scorpion", she opened art salons in Vienna and London, married later Austrian romantic composer and conductor Gustav Mahler (Gustav Mahler), founder of German architect Walter Gropius (Walter Gropius, Bauhaus Bauhaus, Austrian-American poet Franz Werfel, She is also the lover of celebrities such as Austrian painter and poet Oscar Kirksika (Oskar Kokoschka). She has written several art songs.

[18] Fin-de-si è cle-Damen, end of the century) refers to the literary and artistic climate of sophistry, evasion, world-weariness, and aestheticism at the end of the 19th century. Decadent (Decadent) and aestheticism (Aestheticism) prevailed at that time. In the 18th century, Kant (Immanuel Kant) thought that aesthetic standards should be "free" independent of morality, practicality, and fun, and J.W.Goethe and J.L.Tieck were deeply influenced. This also became the origin of aestheticism. Decadence holds that literature and art should exist independently of the material civilization of the industrial age.

[19] Virgil (Vergil), ancient Roman poet, author of Pastoral, Aeneas, etc.

[20] Invocation is the Latin "introduction", which specifically refers to Musenanruf, calling on the muse in poetry, asking the goddess to give her inspiration or to make the work immortal. The Odyssey begins with a cry like this: "Muse, please tell me, this man who has been wandering for a long time after the victory of the holy Troy, please tell me what I should do!" Virgil also used this technique in the Aeneid (Aeneis).

[21] the gods of Hiro mythology are polytheistic gods, which are at odds with Christianity as monotheism. For example, Frederick Kropstock (Friedrich Klopstock), an important representative of sentimentalism, did not mention the muse in the Messiah and called on "the undead spirit": "sing, undead spirit!" You, the salvation of mankind! "

Beatrice is a lady in Florence, Italy, inspired by Dante's poems, and she is also famous for it. Beatrice is the main creative inspiration of Dante's freshman (Vita Nova). At the same time, at the end of the Divine Comedy, as heThe guide appeared, where she succeeded the Latin poet Virgil as the new guide because as a pagan, Virgil could not enter heaven, and she, the embodiment of happiness and love, as her name (Beatrice, means "blessed"), naturally became Dante's guide.

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[23] Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca,1304-1474) was the father of Renaissance humanism. At the age of 24, I watched Laura perform "discrete melody (Rime sparse)", which created a lasting creative desire.

Romantic period: it was popular in Western Europe from the end of the 18th century (before and after the Industrial Revolution) to the mid-19th century, including visual art (1790-1840), literature (1795-1848), and music (1820-1850). The word "romantic (Romantik)" was first put forward by Friedrich von Schlegel (Friedrich von Schlegel), a German writer, critic and translator. It originally refers to "in lingua Romana (Latina)", that is, "written in Latin", and the German word "novel" also uses this root: "Roman". Romanticism believes that aesthetic experience should come from strong emotions, and begin to emphasize emotions such as unease and panic, as well as the awe shown in the face of magnificent nature. Romanticism is the subversion of aristocratic culture, specialization, governance, and governance since the enlightenment, and uses art and literature to confront the rationalization of natural persons. In fact, of course, romanticism is hard to put into a word, as Schlegel said in his letter to his brother: "I'm afraid I can't send you my interpretation of 'Romantisch'-it's 125 pages long."

[26] Bettina von Arnim (1785-1859), a translator of Bette Brenta (Brittine Brentano), German Romantic writer, author of epistolary novel Gandelod (Die G ü erode, describes her friendship with Ms. Gundelod. The latter is known as the "Sappho (Sappho) of the Romantic period". The 27-year-old gave up her life after a bitter love affair with the philosopher Friedrich Creuzer, a married man. The prototype of Rudy's big eyes in Goethe's trouble of the Young Werther is Bettina von Arnim's mother, Maximiliana von LaRoche (Maximiliane von La Roche).

[27] Loli, originally written as "Kindsmusen", comes from Nabokov's "Lolita". There are also two more famous "Kindsmuse": Alice (Alice) from Louis Carlo (Lewis Caroll) 's Alice in Wonderland (Alice in Wonderland) and Lulu (Lulu) from Frank Weidkin (Frank Wedekind) 's Lulu (Lulu).

Novalis (Novalis,1772-1801), a writer, philosopher and mining engineer in the German Romantic period, is a famous "Blue Flower Poet". "Blue Flower (Blaue Blume)" is an important symbol of romanticism, representing all the infinite things and love that the heart longs for, as well as the pursuit that is close at hand but out of reach. From Novalis' Heinley Fong O'Ford Dingen (Heinrich von Oftringen).